Exotic matter is in our sights

Physicists have created a new way to observe details about the structure and composition of materials that improves upon previous methods. Conventional spectroscopy changes the frequency of light shining on a sample over time to reveal details about them. The new technique, Rabi-oscillation spectroscopy, does not need to explore a wide frequency range so can operate much more quickly. This method could be used to interrogate our best theories of matter in order to form a better understanding of the material universe.

Though we cannot see them with the naked eye, we are all familiar with the atoms that make up everything we see around us. Collections of positive protons, neutral neutrons and negative electrons give rise to all the matter we interact with. However, there are some more exotic forms of matter, including exotic atoms, which are not made from these three basic components. Muonium, for example, is like hydrogen, which typically has one electron in orbit around one proton, but has a positively charged muon particle in place of the proton.

Muons are important in cutting-edge physics as they allow physicists to test our best theories about matter such as quantum electrodynamics or the Standard Model, with extremely high accuracy. This in itself is important, as only when a robust theory is pushed to its extremes may proverbial cracks start to form which could indicate where new, more complete theories are needed and even what they might be. This is why the study of muonium is of great interest to the physics community, but up until now it has evaded detailed observation.

“Muonium is a very short-lived atom, so it is important to make quick observations with as much power as possible in order to obtain the best signal from the limited observation time,” said Associate Professor Hiroyuki A. Torii from the Graduate School of Science at the University of Tokyo. “Conventional spectroscopic methods require repeated observations across a range of frequencies to find the particular key frequency we are looking for, known as the resonance frequency, and this takes time.”

So, Torii and his team devised a new kind of spectroscopic method that makes use of a well-understood physical effect known as Rabi oscillation. Rabi-oscillation spectroscopy does not need to search for frequency signals in order to convey information about an atom. Instead, it looks at the raw sensor, or time-domain, data over a shorter amount of time and delivers information based on that. This new method offers vast improvements in precision.

“The study of exotic atoms requires knowledge of low-energy atomic physics and high-energy particle physics. This combination of disciplines within physics suggests we’re on a path to a more complete understanding of our material universe,” said Torii. “I’m eager to see physicists use Rabi-oscillation spectroscopy to peer ever deeper into the world of exotic atoms containing unusual particles and isotopes, and other kinds of matter created at particle accelerators around the world.”

This work was supported by Japanese JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP23244046, JP26247046, JP15H05742, JP17H01133, and JP19K14746

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Materials provided by University of Tokyo. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

How wildfire restored a Yosemite watershed

For nearly half a century, lightning-sparked blazes in Yosemite’s Illilouette Creek Basin have rippled across the landscape — closely monitored, but largely unchecked. Their flames might explode into plumes of heat that burn whole hillsides at once, or sit smoldering in the underbrush for months.

The result is approximately 60 square miles of forest that look remarkably different from other parts of the Sierra Nevada: Instead of dense, wall-to-wall tree cover — the outcome of more than a century of fire suppression — the landscape is broken up by patches of grassland, shrubland and wet meadows filled with wildflowers more abundant than in other parts of the forest. These gaps in the canopy are often punctuated by the blackened husks of burned trunks or the fresh green of young pines.

“It really is a glimpse into what the Sierra Nevada was like 200 years ago,” said Scott Stephens, a professor of environmental science, policy and management at the University of California, Berkeley, and co-director of Berkeley Forests.

Stephens is the senior author of a new study that gathers together decades of research documenting how the return of wildfire has shaped the ecology of Yosemite National Park’s Illilouette Creek Basin and Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks’ Sugarloaf Creek Basin since the parks adopted policies for the basins — at Illilouette Creek in 1972 and Sugarloaf Creek in 1968 — to allow lightning-ignited fires to burn.

While the prospect of smoke over iconic Half Dome has worried politicians and tourists alike, the work of Stephens and his colleagues demonstrates that allowing frequent fires to burn in these basins has brought undeniable ecological benefits, including boosting plant and pollinator biodiversity, limiting the severity of wildfires and increasing the amount of water available during periods of drought. All these benefits are also likely to make the forest more resilient to the warmer, drier conditions brought by climate change, the research suggests.

“In many ways, fire has successfully been restored to Illilouette, and it has made for a complex mosaic of vegetationwith cascading effects on things like water,” said study co-author Brandon Collins, who holds a joint appointment as a research scientist with Berkeley Forests and with the U.S. Forest Service.”In Illilouette, you can have patches of young, regenerating trees from a fire 15 years ago, or areas where a classic understory burn has resulted in big, old, widely-spaced trees. You can even have areas where fire has missed because there’s more moisture, such as adjacent to a creek or on the edge of a meadow. All this complexity can happen in a really short amount of space.”

The study findings arrive in the middle of a critical fire season, when drought conditions throughout the western U.S. have already sparked numerous large wildfires, including the Dixie Fire, which, as of Aug. 8, was the second-largest wildfire in California history. While climate change has played a role in increasing the severity of these fires, Stephens said, Illilouette Creek Basin serves as an example of how current forest conditions in the Sierra — largely shaped by decades of fire suppression — are also driving these massive blazes.

I think climate change is no more than 20 to 25% responsible for our current fire problems in the state, and most of it is due to the way our forests are,” Stephens said. “Illilouette Basin is one of the few places in the state that actually provides that information, because there is no evidence of changes in fire size or in the severity of fires that burn in the area. So, even though the ecosystem is being impacted by climate change, its feedbacks are so profound that it’s not changing the fire regime at all.”

Returning fire to Yosemite

For millennia, wildfires sparked by lightning, or lit by Native American tribes, regularly shaped the landscape of the western U.S., not only causing destruction, but also triggering necessary cycles of rebirth and regeneration. However, the arrival of European colonists in the late 1800s, followed by formation of the U.S. Forest Service in 1905, ushered in an era in which fire was viewed as the enemy of humans and forests alike, and the vast majority of wildfires were quickly extinguished.

By the 1940s and 1950s, a number of forest managers and ecologists had begun to question the wisdom of fire suppression, noting that the practice was eliminating valuable wildlife habitat and increasing the severity of fires by allowing decades of fuel buildup. These fire proponents included A. Starker Leopold, an acclaimed conservationist and professor of zoology and forestry at UC Berkeley, as well as Harold Biswell, a professor at UC Berkeley’s School of Forestry.

In response to a foundational 1963 report led by Leopold, the U.S. National Park Service changed its policy in 1968 to allow lightning fires to burn within special fire management zones — usually remote regions at high elevations — where danger to human settlements was low. Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks established the first fire management zone in 1968, followed by Yosemite National Park in 1972.

“I think it was finally recognized that fire is an integral piece of these ecosystems, and there were a few key people who were willing to take the risk of letting these fires happen,” Collins said.

‘It isn’t always clean, and it’s not always nice’

Between 1973 and 2016, Illilouette Creek Basin experienced 21 fires larger than 40 hectares — approximately equal to 75 football fields — while Sugarloaf experienced 10 fires of that size. In Illilouette, the result today is a forest that may look a bit messy to the untrained eye, but it holds a lot of resilience.

“When some people visit Illilouette, they say, ‘Look at all these dead trees!'” Stephens said. “I think we have this idea that forests need to be green all the time and made up with only big trees. But it turns out that no forest can do that. It has to be able to grow young trees and regenerate. Illilouette is doing that, but it isn’t always clean, and it’s not always nice.”

In Illilouette, wildfire has created a more diverse array of habitats for animals like bees and bats, while allowing a variety of plant life to flourish. The detailed history of wildfires in Illilouette has also provided foresters with valuable information on how the impact of one wildfire on landscape and vegetation can influence the trajectory of the next wildfire.

“Since fires are generally allowed to burn freely in Illilouette, we could look at what happens when two fires have burned close to each other: When does the second fire burn into the area that was burned by the first fire, and when does it stop at the previous perimeter?” Collins said. “We found that it really depended on the amount of time that had passed since the first fire.If it had been nine years or under, fires almost never burned into a previous fire perimeter.”

Collins said that Illilouette has also given forest managers a unique opportunity to study how wildfire behaves under a variety of conditions, rather than only at its most dire.

“One of the things that’s kind of perverse about the fire suppression policy is that we actually constrain fires to only burn under the worst conditions. If the fire is mellow, that’s a good time to put it out, and, as a result, they only burn when we can’t put them out,” Collins said. But by letting these fires burn [in Illilouette], they’re able to experience the full range of weather conditions. On bad days, some of these fires have really put up a pretty good plume. But on the flip side, they also get to burn under more moderate conditions, too, and it makes for really varied effects.”

Returning fire to Illilouette has also had the somewhat counterintuitive impact of increasing the availability of water in the basin, a key finding as California weathers yet another year of extreme drought.

Study co-author Gabrielle Boisramé, an assistant research professor at the Desert Research Institute in Nevada, began studying water in Illilouette as a Ph.D. student in environmental engineering at UC Berkeley. Her simulations and measurements indicate that small gaps in the tree canopy created by wildfires have allowed more water from snow and rainfall to reach the ground, while also reducing the number of trees competing for water resources. As a result, soil moisture in some locations in Illilouette increased as much as 30% between 1969 and 2012, which likely contributed to very low tree mortality in the basin during the drought years of 2014 and 2015.

Measurements also indicate that streamflow out of Illilouette Creek Basin has increased slightly since the managed wildfire program began, while streamflow out of other similar watersheds in the Sierras have all decreased. Boosting the amount of water that flows downstream is likely to benefit both the humans and the aquatic ecosystems that depend on this precious resource.

“There’s more and more work being done that examines the effects of fire on hydrology, but most of the other research is looking at the effects of catastrophic fires that burned up an entire forest,” Boisramé said. “As far as we know, we’re the only ones in the western U.S. studying a restored fire regime, where we’re not just looking at one individual fire, but a number of fires of mixed severity that have occurred over natural intervals of time. There just aren’t that many places to study the long-term effects of these repeated wildfires because Sugarloaf and Illilouette were the first areas in California — really the first western mountain watersheds — where they started allowing fires to burn most of the time.

Fighting for fire

Most U.S. national parks now practice some form of fire use, rather than full fire suppression, and in 1974, the National Forest Service also changed its policy to also allow some fires to burn on its lands, although areas of fire use are rare in this agency. However, these federal fire use policies have struggled to gain a foothold, largely because of the inherent risks involved in managing wildfire.

Even in Sugarloaf Creek Basin, where many fires have been allowed to burn, there has also been significantly more fire suppression than in Illilouette, the study found. As a result, the ecological benefits in Sugarloaf are not as pronounced as those in Illilouette.

I think one of the key things to recognize is that the landscape in Illilouette was already somewhat unique, partly because it is at slightly higher elevation than a lot of the forests we manage,” Collins said. “As a result, it already had a mix of vegetation with patches of meadows and rock, and I think maybe that gave managers a little more ease in letting fire happen there. It doesn’t have the potential to really push off a giant megafire because it lacks the continuity that some of these other areas have.”

While both naturally-sparked fires and prescribed burns could help large swathes of the Sierra forest become more resilient to both drought and high severity fire, opposition to national “let it burn” policies in California remains strong, with state and local fire agencies often favoring the safety of fire suppression.

Collins and Stephens both acknowledge that the current fuel density in much of the Sierra, mixed with the hotter, drier conditions already triggered by climate change, has made managing wildfire even riskier than it was when forest managers started allowing fires to burn in Yosemite in 1972. However, they argue, fire suppression will never succeed in the long term, because the longer that forest fuel sources are allowed to build up, the more likely it becomes that wildfires will turn catastrophic when they are finally sparked.

“In order to actually allow this to happen, political and public institutions need to be willing to accommodate risk, because there will be some unpredictability. There are going to be fires that get larger, and more severe burning in places that have had very little fire for a century or more,” Stephens said. “We can’t guarantee that Illilouette is going to be the new outcome, because it started when climate change was not nearly as severe. So, political institutions will have to accommodate that, or the first fire that doesn’t do exactly what we hope will shut down the whole program.

Collins and Stephens also advocate for more aggressive prescribed burning and restoration thinning throughout the Sierra to help get the forests to a place where lightning-sparked fires can be allowed to burn more safely.

Stephens credits strong, early leadership at Yosemite — including that of study co-author Jan W. van Wagtendok, who received a Ph.D. from UC Berkeley in 1972 and went on to serve as a research scientist at Yosemite for most of his career — for taking the huge risk of launching the program and allowing early fires to burn in the park.

“It’s been 50 years now, but I think what we’ve learned helps us understand what is possible,” Stephens said. “We have 10 to 20 years to actually change the trajectory of the forest ecosystems in our state, and if we don’t change them in 10 or 20 years, the forest ecosystems are going to change right in front of our eyes, and we’re just going to be passengers. That’s why it’s so important to continue this work.”

Previous funding from the U.S. Joint Fire Science Program, UC ANR Competitive Grants Program, and the National Science Foundation’s Critical Zone Collaborate Network (award number 2011346) supported the research in this paper.

Study co-authors also include Sally Thompson of the University of Western Australia; Lauren C. Ponisio of the University of Oregon, Eugene; Ekaterina Rakhmatulina, Jens Stevens and Zachary L. Steel of UC Berkeley; and Kate Wilkin of San Jose State University.

Workhorse is already redesigning its new electric van

Ohio-based startup Workhorse says it has to redesign its flagship electric van to meet customer needs, after finally getting the vehicle into production this past quarter following years of struggles.

The company announced Monday morning that it needs to “revise the design [of] the vehicle” to increase the payload capacity, which has been reported to be around 6,000 pounds. The C-1000 van, as it’s called, has 1,000 cubic feet of cargo space. The company says the electric powertrain will remain untouched and that it will continue to deliver some C-1000s as they come off the line to customers who are fine with the van’s current capabilities.

“We’re going to go through full vehicle design reviews down to the bill of materials with both our engineering team, and our purchasing team,” CEO Rick Dauch said on a call with investors. Dauch, who only just joined Workhorse at the end of July, said the company knew about these “issues” with the C-1000 “long before I got here.” He promised to release a revamped product roadmap by November but said he “can’t commit to have all the design plans specifically buttoned down” by then.

Dauch, who came from automotive supplier Delphi, tried to calm any nerves by teasing a recent call with one of the company’s prospective customers, which he says wanted to place an order for 1,500 to 2,000 vans as is. “I said hold off for now, let’s get the designs right, let’s get our production right, and we’ll come back and tell you when we’re ready to actually make those orders,” he says he told the customer.

Dauch replaced prior CEO Duane Hughes as part of a series of shakeups in Workhorse’s executive ranks that came in the wake of the company losing the bid to build the next-generation delivery vehicle for the United States Postal Service (USPS). That contract was awarded to defense manufacturer Oshkosh in February, though Workhorse is currently challenging the decision in federal court.

The decision to redesign the C-1000 van comes at a crucial moment for Workhorse. The startup has spent years trying to be the first to offer a fully electric delivery van and has drawn the attention of big-name customers like UPS and Ryder. But it has struggled to get the van (and its successor, a 650-cubic-foot variant) ready for production. And as the USPS contest dragged on, it survived for a while on money borrowed from hedge funds.

In early 2019, Workhorse licensed the intellectual property for an electric pickup truck it had in development to a new startup called Lordstown Motors — which was founded by Hughes’ predecessor, Steve Burns. In exchange, Workhorse received a 10 percent stake in Lordstown Motors as well as millions of dollars in licensing fees and royalties.

Lordstown Motors went public in a merger with a special purpose acquisition company late last year, and the value of Workhorse’s stake briefly ballooned to around $330 million. But Burns has since been accused of faking and lying about the number of preorders for Lordstown Motors’ electric pickup truck and was ousted from the company in June. Lordstown Motors is now facing multiple federal investigations and has had to narrow the scope of its own plans to get into production.

With that in mind, Workhorse also announced Monday that it recently sold 72 percent of its stake in Lordstown Motors to add to its cash reserves. (The company finished the quarter with $156 million in the bank, though it has lost $183 million through the first half of 2021.) As Lordstown Motors’ stock price has dropped amid the startup’s struggles, Workhorse said the sale is only expected to net around $79 million.

The Witcher: Nightmare of the Wolf’s new trailer teases a ton of monster-hunting action

Netflix’s anime Witcher spinoff filmThe Witcher: Nightmare of the Wolf — is almost here, and a new full-length trailer shows off a lot more of the epic monster fighting and charismatic heroics of its protagonist, Geralt’s mentor Vesemir.

The film is set before the events of the live-action series and will look to explain more about the Witcher’s world, including how the magically mutated monster hunters are created. It’ll also provide useful backstory on Vesemir, who’s set to appear in the upcoming second season of the show when it arrives this December.

The new trailer for the anime spinoff also shows off a lot more of the expanded Witcher universe, and some rather impressive-looking fight scenes and effects, the sorts of which would have been far harder to achieve in the live-action series.

Kwang Il Han, director at Studio Mir, told The Verge one benefit of the animated format included allowing the witchers to carry their iconic dual blades: “The actors had difficulty carrying multiple swords at the same time, because they were too heavy, so they were only carrying one sword at a time,” he says. “In the anime we don’t have those restrictions.”

The new trailer follows a shorter teaser released last month and comes just a few weeks before the August 23rd debut of the animated film.

Netflix’s Midnight Mass is the next horror series from the mind behind Haunting of Hill House

The mind behind one of Netflix’s most unsettling shows is back with a new series. Midnight Mass is a new seven-episode show from Mike Flanagan, perhaps best-known as the creator of The Haunting of Hill House and its follow-up The Haunting of Bly Manor. And while the new series — which stars the likes of Rahul Kohli, Zach Gilford, and Hamish Linklater — isn’t part of that anthology, the first trailer has some very similar, and creepy, vibes. Check it out above.

Here’s the basic premise, from Netflix:

Midnight Mass tells the tale of a small, isolated island community whose existing divisions are amplified by the return of a disgraced young man (Zach Gilford) and the arrival of a charismatic priest (Hamish Linklater). When Father Paul’s appearance on Crockett Island coincides with unexplained and seemingly miraculous events, a renewed religious fervor takes hold of the community: but do these miracles come at a price?

The good news is that horror fans won’t have to wait all that long to binge Flanagan’s latest: Midnight Mass hits Netflix on September 24th.

Don’t Panic, Your WhatsApp (Probably) Wasn’t Hacked

Don’t Panic, Your WhatsApp (Probably) Wasn’t Hacked

WABetaInfo doesn’t say whether this bug is something that WhatsApp can fix server-side (which would solve the problem without the need for an app update), or if the bug will need to be addressed with an upcoming patch.

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If you’re on iPhone, stay vigilant

It’s important to note that WABetaInfo specifically says that this bug affects WhatsApp for Android, and not iOS. If you were unexpectedly logged out of WhatsApp on your iPhone, we don’t have an innocent explantation for that, and highly recommend you change your password at the very least (and make sure to make it a strong one).

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Footage of the First Cruise Ship Roller Coaster in Action Looks Like it Will Make You Extra Sea Sick

Watch the First Cruise Ship Roller Coaster in Action

Roller coasters usually rely on gravity to send guests hurdling down a track full of twists and loops after either being hauled to the top of a steep hill using a motorized lift or quickly launched up to speed using an electromagnetic catapult. But the twists and turns of a traditional roller coaster are strategically designed and positioned so that the coaster itself always has enough momentum to carry itself through to the end. The rocking and rolling motions of a cruise ship, however, mean a gravity-powered coaster isn’t possible, so the Bolt functions more like a self-propelled electric motorcycle during every run.

The Bolt coaster can accommodate two riders, but the front passenger gets to control its speed at all times as it snakes its way around an 800-foot long track that makes a full lap of the rear of the ship. There are no loops, and as coasters go it looks like a fairly tame ride, but the track sits 187 feet above the ocean so it should offer spectacular views the entire time, and it can hit a top speed of 40 miles per hour so if you’re already seasick, climbing aboard won’t make you feel any better. The only catch? According to the Carnival Cruise Line website, the Bolt actually requires an additional cost to ride. Cruise lines are struggling to make up for a year of lost revenues, but charging passengers to use one of the most prominently promoted features of a new cruise ship doesn’t seem like the best way to return to profitability.

Harley-Davidson’s custom electric chopper is up for auction, and I must have it

Serial 1, the electric bike company that spun out from Harley-Davidson last year, is making one-of-a-kind, custom-built e-bikes and auctioning them off online. The first one is the Schwinn Sting-Ray-inspired Mosh/Chopper, which the company describes as a “psychedelic, hand-painted banana seater,” and oh boy do I want it.

Unfortunately, my chances are slim to none. First of all, Serial 1 is only making, well, one of these. The Mosh/Chopper is the first product from the company’s new 1-OFF series, in which it’s custom designing, building, and releasing single-edition (i.e. runs of just one) e-bikes throughout the year and auctioning them off online.

The current bid is $6,700, which is a bit too expensive for my taste. The auction ends August 11th at 5PM, so there isn’t much time left to bid. Whoever ends up winning, please let me borrow it for a little while. I desperately want to put baseball cards in its spokes and attach streamers to the handlebars.

To be honest, I didn’t grow up in the 1960s, so I never owned a Sting-Ray, but damn if this isn’t a gorgeous homage to the cruisers of that era. Serial 1 unveiled the Mosh/Chopper at the 81st annual Sturgis Motorcycle Rally last week, a sign that the company will be leaning into its motorcycle roots in future projects. Also, the bike was constructed by two Milwaukee-based chopper builders, Warren Heir Jr. and Kendall Lutchman of JR’s Fabrication and Welding.

“Customization is such an important part of the motorcycle ownership experience,” says Aaron Frank, brand director at Serial 1, in a statement. “For decades, people have been modifying their motorcycles to reflect their unique style and taste. The 1-OFF Series applies this same spirit of individualization and personalization to eBikes, showing people just how much fun it is to create an eBike that suits their own unique personality.”

The Mosh/Chopper isn’t just a beautiful e-bike; it’s also packing a powerful drivetrain, thanks to Harley-Davidson’s design know-how and a bunch of well-sourced components. Much like Serial 1’s regular lineup of e-bikes, the Chopper has a Gates Carbon Drive belt, a German-made Brose mid-drive motor that’s capable of 250W of continuous power and hitting top speeds of 20mph. On top of that, the bike has hydraulic disc brakes, internally routed cables and wires, and integrated lighting.

In addition, the Chopper is sporting many customized features: a long-and-low banana seat that’s supported by a custom stainless-steel sissy bar, and a high-rise handlebar that creates a comfortable riding position for laid-back cruising. The ‘60s-era “Street Freak” paint job, consisting of a silver micro-flake base coat covered in House of Kolor “oriental blue kandy,” is sure to look stunning under sunlight. And other finishings, like intricate panels, freak drops, hand-painted pinstripes, and single-stroke hand lettering, complete the package.

So once again, if you happen to submit the winning bid for this bike, my email address is andrew.hawkins@theverge.com. Please reach out. I know I will never own it, but maybe I can ride it once. Just around the block?

Microsoft brings xCloud to Windows PCs with the Xbox app

Microsoft is bringing xCloud to Windows PCs through its Xbox app today. Xbox Insiders will be able to access a new updated Xbox app with Xbox Cloud Gaming (xCloud) built in. Much like how xCloud works through the web, you’ll just need a compatible controller connected via Bluetooth or USB to access Xbox games from a Windows 10 PC.

The updated Xbox app will include a new “cloud games” section, with access to all of the same games available on xCloud on the web. “We’ve also added some new features to help you get started, including easy-to-access information on controller and network status, social features to stay connected with friends, and the ability to invite people – even those also playing on cloud without the game installed – to join you in a game,” says Jason Beaumont, a partner director of Xbox experiences.

xCloud inside the new Xbox app on Windows 10.

Xbox Insider testers will be able to access the new Xbox app in 22 different countries through signing up to the “Windows Gaming” preview in the Xbox Insider Hub app. Cloud games will then be available in the Game Pass section of the app, allowing you to resume Xbox games that were started on a console or in the cloud.

This new Xbox app also includes the ability to stream games from a local Xbox, allowing you to power on and off a console and play your games streamed from your own Xbox.

If you’re not an Xbox tester, you can still access xCloud over at http://xbox.com/play, and Microsoft will likely bring this full experience to the Xbox app on Windows in the coming months.

The Witcher: Nightmare of the Wolf’s New Trailer Tosses a Coin Vesemir’s Way

The Witcher Nightmare of the Wolf Trailer: Vesemir, Tetra

The money Vesemir makes from his demon hunting is more than enough to furnish a life of moderate comfort in the new trailer, but when a gig escorting the witch Tetra (Lara Pulver) arises, he leaves his modest luxuries behind in order to do what he does best: kill the dangerous beings that, like he and Teta, wield magic.

While there’s only but so much to be gleaned about Nightmare of the Wolf’s premise from the trailer, there are a few shots of other witchers from the previous age, suggesting that the series may delve a bit more into the culture and lives of other witchers than The Witcher’s first season did. Because characters like Vesemir are set to appear in live-action in The Witcher’s second season, there’s also a solid chance that Nightmare of the Wolf’s story will factor into the franchise’s near future, meaning that the show’s probably going to be something fans want to check out when it hits Netflix August 23.


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